Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Motivation To Improve Performance: Financing Needs Estimation (Essay Sample) Content: Financing Needs EstimationStudents Name:Institution:Solution:The assurance and the repayment of debt require a balancing act which demands to take into account the available money in the company or business. Therefore it's very risky for a company to be holding much money since the opportunity cost and the little cash could make a company not able to settle their debts (Mayo, 2015). In an organization or business, a debt of a long period is calculated as follows.New Long-term debt requires = the extra cash required Capital stock supplyExtra cash required = ((Sales/ or the Assets in existence)* adjustments in the current Sales in existence) - ((Accounts to be paid/payable)*Adjustments in the current Sales in existence) - The income Profit Margin* The Projected Sales * The Retention Ratio projected)Recommendations for lowering Forecasted Debt Financing 1 Increasing the Common Stock Agenda:Ambrose Inc. intends to market the stock of $75000 for sale. Therefore to be ab le to decrease the additional debt it requires Ambrose to issue more new stock in the market. This new stocks that were issued in the market will provide a chance and more cash to invest in the new market opportunities considerably (Mayo, et al...). It will also assist in decreasing the obligation of additional debt financing in the new stock. This will offer a chance to lower the risk of default and will also provide a better investment option. 2 Increasing the Retention Rate being incurred:Ambrose Inc. decided to use a better retention ratio of 60%. This means that organization will be providing a net income of 40% as the company's dividends. Therefore at the retention rate of 60% and additional $18750 of the new long-term debt is required. A company that uses a retention ratio of 70% will need $0 long-term debt. An increase in the adverse retention rate will assists companies to preserve more money to invest in their business. Moreover, an increase in retention ratio will res ult in the decrease of the new long-term debt that is required for financing in the company activities (Moyer, McGuigan, Rao and Kretlow 2011). 3 Reduction of the Companys Capital Expenditure:In any business or organization capital expenditures is defined as shifting of expenditure in the future of a business. Therefore capital expenditure is experienced when a company or business uses the money to purchase their fixed assets or adding to the existing fixed asset (Brigham and Houston 2016). The decrease in capital expenditure will result in lowering the costs for Ambrose Inc. and increasing the net income of the organization.The Profit Margin of a company = Net Sales/Net Income incurred.An increase in Profit margin will also cause an increase in the net income of a company. Therefore increasing the profit margin will result in lowering the additional funds required and cause a less long-term debt. 4 Increasing the Account Payable:Accounts payable is the cash allocated by an organiz ation to its providers that appears as a liability on an organization's asset report. A reduced payment of the installment of liabilities will give more money and reduce the long-term debt. The increment in the account payable will build the extra funds requi...
Monday, May 18, 2020
Other Emotions Worthy of Praise: Elevation and Gratitude In Algoe and HaiditÃ¢â¬â¢s article titled, Witnessing excellence in action: the Ã¢â¬Ëother-praisingÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration, the authors began and ended with these two quotes: Despite their potential impact, psychologists now very little about the terrain positive emotions because only one of these emotions has been well-mapped: Ã¢â¬Ëhappiness.Ã¢â¬â¢ Elevation, gratitude, and admiration are not just flavors of happiness. They are part of the human emotional repertoire that, until now has been largely unexplored, and whose potential remains largely untapped (Algoe and Haidt, 2004). Students did not say they felt Ã¢â¬Å"elevatedÃ¢â¬ during their family trips, but they shared memorable moments of happiness, benevolence, and gratification. Algoe and Haidit introduced traditional and recent empirical research on the effects and benefits of gratitude, which provides commentary on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ memories with their families. Ã¢â¬Å"Recent evidence suggests that gratitude often serves a broader social function, namely, promoting relationships with responsive ones,Ã¢â¬ (p. 3). Ã¢â¬Å"We recently demonstrated that the two most robust predictors of gratitude were the perception that the benefactor was being responsive to the needs and wishes of the recipient (i.e. thoughtful), and liking the benefit,Ã¢â¬ (3). Again, this goes back to being mindful and practicing mindfulness. Positive psychology focus on positive emotions that included a wideShow MoreRelatedGods Personal Intervention in the Lives of His People Essay997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslives of those who follow after him. David, who was know as a man after GodÃ¢â¬â¢s own heart, found himself being constantly pursued by King Saul but always rescued by God from certain death. In Psalm 18, David praises the Lord in what has now become canonized in the Bible and is known as a Psalm of Praise. The psalm opens with the powerful sentence: Ã¢â¬Å"I love you, O Lord, my strength,Ã¢â¬ which immediately demonstrates DavidÃ¢â¬Ës devotion to the Lord along with the recognition that he provides something that DavidRead MoreEssay on Araby, by James Joyce846 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreligious adherent carries a saintÃ¢â¬â¢s medal or other religious relic as constant protection and reminder, on his pilgrimages Ã¢â¬Å"in places most hostile to romance.Ã¢â¬ the boy carries with him Ã¢â¬Å"her imageÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a figure celestially, angelically backlit Ã¢â¬Å"by the light from the half-opened door.Ã¢â¬ Like a guardian angel, Ã¢â¬Å"her nameÃ¢â¬ (although it is never revealed in th e story; he simply calls her Ã¢â¬Å"ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sisterÃ¢â¬ ) inspires in him Ã¢â¬Å"strange prayers and praises.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"prayers and praisesÃ¢â¬ grow out of his unrestrained, youthfulRead MoreThe Between Glaucon And The Socrates950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswe fall victim to vice when we are ruled by our emotions or desires. In one of the dialogues between Glaucon and the Socrates we understand the deeper level of his theories. I find his believes and thoughts very interesting as he helps us understand the way our inner emotions and reason could at times reflect on the humans we become on our day to day lives. He explains how we can become a slave to our own emotions and desires. When we allow emotion to take over we disregard our logic, which reflectsRead MoreNotes On The And The Death Of Jesus1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesearth he experienced all kinds of human emotion and temptation. I am not alone. There is nothing I struggle with that He has not overcome. This gi ves me hopeÃ¢â¬âwith God, it is possible to overcome anything the devil may use to distract me. John 1:18 Content No one has seen God, but mankind has witnessed His incarnation in Jesus Christ. Jesus is God. Jesus reveals God to mankind. Application Jesus Christ is God. He, the man, is worthy of all of the praise of God the Father. Jesus is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s greatestRead MoreThe Truth Of The Bible1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages I believe that the main source of truth is the Bible. On the other hand, God is an infinite God, and if he chooses any other means for you to find truth, you will find it, weather if it is through dreams or through other Scriptures. However, God can choose to reveal himself outside of Christianity. I have heard that throughout the Muslim faith several have come to know Jesus through their own scripture, the Quran. In addition, others have begun to believe in Jesus through dreams. Perhaps, God canRead MoreThe Importance of Hymns in the Congregational Church Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave played in my worship experiences.The central understanding in Congregationalism is that each local congregation is self-governing, which necessitates the full autonomy of the local congregation in matters of faith and doctrine as well as in other matters of governance. It acknowledges no authority outside of the local congregation, neither bishop nor presbytery. The Congregational Church is reluctant to give binding authority to creeds, for this is the ground on which they broke free fromRead MoreBeowulf Literary Analysis Essay869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages27th, 2012 Period 6th Ã¢â¬Å"No better king had ever lived, no prince so mild, no man so open to his people, so deserving of praise.Ã¢â¬ This is an ultimate description of the heroic events of Beowulf, an old Anglo-Saxon poem about a warrior who battles and destroys three horrifying monsters. Although written long ago, the emotions expressed within this work, emotions of bravery, valor, and ethics still speak to us centuries later. The anonymous author of the poem convinces us through the masterfulRead MoreThe Importance Of A Common Bumper Sticker Quote903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto this statement, the older I have gotten, the wider my eyes have become and the more of the world around me, I have seen in its full, vivid colors rather than the simple, crisp black-and-white of childhood. In my elementary days, being anything other than well behaved was downright frightening. The ever-bearing fear of disapproval weighed heavy upon my little shoulders, because frankly, speaking against adults was unforgivable and meant no rewards in the form of sweets or shiny foil stickers withRead MoreThe Suicide Note By Janice Mirikitani1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages TOPIC There are times when we feel like we must be perfect in other to please others. No matter if we did the best we could, if it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t perfect, we felt like a failure. We want the approval that comes with perfectness but perfectionism is not the same thing as striving to be our best. Perfectionism is not about healthy achievement and growth; it s a shield. Perfectionism is refusal to accept any standard short of perfection. Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide Note,Ã¢â¬ by JaniceRead MoreWilliam Wordsworths The World Is Too Much With Us1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslack of appreciation for the world around him or her. Others claim the poem paints a picture of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s ignorance at large. On the one hand, those who consider the poem to be directed at Christians point out the reference to Pagan beliefs (line 10). To refer to a person as a Pagan is a ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s term for a non-believer, or one who worships false gods; furthermore, this insinuates the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s religious attachment to Christianity. On the other hand, WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the inclusive Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ in the
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Have you ever caught yourself judging a person because they have to go to a psychologist? It would be completely normal if you did. Moreover, the percentage of individuals that judge based off of what they have heard about the subject is tremendously high. This is because psychology is subclassed with crazy people, which in fact could not be further from the truth. The following essay will clear up this illustration about psychology by further breaking down one of its fields, Crisis Counseling. Crisis Counseling is exactly as it sounds, it deals with individuals after a traumatic event. Crisis counselors not only conduct interviews with the patient(client), they also: assist clients in following through with treatment plans, collaborate with other counselors, nurses, or physicians in order to coordinate a treatment plan, increase social network knowledge by reviewing current literature, conducting social research, and also attend seminars, training workshops, or classes in order to enhance their knowledge. (Careers) Unlike most physicians a Crisis Counselor follows through with the patient in order to make sure he/she gets better. They do this by not only talking with the patient, but sets up appointments for them. The counselor will even go as far as arranging transportation to the appointment, what physician has ever went that far to support their patient? (Careers) Crisis Counseling seems like it would be one subjective area of study, however this is also wrong.Show MoreRelatedcj01e471 unit 1 assessment1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTEST QUESTIONS UNIT 1 chapters 1-4 1. Successful crisis work may be described as a. enhancing the crisis workers life. b. successfully resolving long-standing trauma. c. becoming multi-culturally aware. d. generating in the client a long-term resiliency to ward off future crisis. Answer: a 2. Of the following components of basic crisis theory, which does not apply? a. Basic crisis theory is equivalent to brief therapy. b. Crisis is a state where ordinary behaviors cant overcomeRead MoreMental Health Essay937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessupport. Disability and counseling services are frequently on the cutting block when funding is questioned leaving 20% of children and 18.1% of young adult students suddenly losing the resources they need to thrive in an academic environment (NAMI, 2016). Disability and counseling services are not the only departments in a school environment affected by the lacking resources; the entire academic community feels the repercussions. When a student experiences a mental health crisis and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have theRead MoreThe Triage Assessment Form On Clients955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUsing the Triage Assessment Form on Clients In life we are born with care givers taking care of our every need until one day we are ready to be out in the world. We learn many things from our care givers and the environment we live in. These lesions teach us how to take care of ourselves by finding food, water, shelter, and security. Many people out in the world are going through their normal day only worrying about what they have to do when they get home instead of worrying about what mightRead MoreCounseling Stages1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Stages of Counseling Obviously there are many people who have problems and will need professional help. I will discuss the five stages of counseling and how to build a proper relationship to help a person turn their life around. As a future counselor, these steps will be so vital and important to my success as a counselor. The best way to help a person is by establishing a solid relationship with them. People want to feel comfortable in anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s presence; they want to be confidentRead MoreThe Importance Of A Clinical Emphasis Position As An Advanced Practicum Student At Depaul University Counseling Services For The 2016-2017 Academic755 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesformally apply for a clinical emphasis position as an advanced practicum student at DePaul University Counseling Services for the 2016-2017 academic year. Currently, I am completing my third year of training in the APA-accredited clinical psychology doctoral program at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. I have a strong interest in completing my advanced training at DePaul UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Counseling Services as it offers intensive training that is unparalleled in the Chicagoland area. In particularRead MoreWhat Are The Different Categories Of Helpers?1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestouch and body language. Showing affection towards others. Warmth shows accepting and caring instead of ignoring, rejecting or giving an old shoulder. RESPECT Treat people with respect an equal right. Separates a person from his/her behaviour and look beyond the sin seeing the person as our Father in Heaven want them to be. Show genuine interested in the person. We are all humans with flaws and mistakes and recognizes others as humans to. GENUINENESS Truthful genuine person, honest about feelingsRead MorePersonal Statement On Child Abuse958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCarolina. In the guidance-counseling department, I assisted with counseling appointments with children in grades K-8. We often discussed topics such as bullying, divorce, and friendship disputes. In the learning support department, I tutored children with intellectual disabilities. That experience showed me how much children go through, and taught me how to build rapport. These experiences confirmed my passion for connecting and supporting people in need. Currently I am a crisis counselor at Women OrganizedRead MoreOvercoming Barriers For The Client During Treatment1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is important for a counselor to proper an action plan to overcome barriers for the client during treatment. Counseling is not about taking and not taking the proper actions. When a client is having barriers it is very important for the counselor to identify those barriers and set an action plan to help client overcome the obstacles. The counselor should identify the principles for a well action plan, discuss barriers that a client might encounter, outline intervention that will help with theRead MoreThe Mental Health Program For Messiah1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages I recently just read a book for a crisis counseling class, as part of the clinical mental health program for Messiah. Chapter 1, in the book Healing From Trauma, was entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Shit Happens.Ã¢â¬ The chapter spoke about traumatic events and why terrible things might happen to people. The chapter stressed that we are flawed humans that live in an imperfect world with little control over unexpected events in our lives. Unexpected deaths, war, terrorists attacks, and fatal illnesses, all strike withoutRead MoreCase Study : Daniel. Daniel1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestime to complete his civil engineering degree. Daniel was court order to counseling treatment after a domestic abuse incident. The court mandated that Daniel receives substance abuse treatment for his alcohol and anxiety issues. On his first visit Daniel appeared well dressed and versed. His mood was fair, but continued to check his watch and look at the door. Daniel explained that the reason he was ordered to take counseling sessions was only because his wife and the judge were working together against
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
If I was in a rocky marriage, would I stay in the marriage for the sake of my children or would I get a divorce? Divorce isnÃ¢â¬â¢t ideal for anyone. No one wants to think that the person they vowed to forever love and always be with through thick and thin would ever want, let alone consider a divorce. No one wants this! But in certain situations, what would you consider is the best option, especially if the kids were involved? Divorcing is probably the toughest decision for any marriage. The parents have to consider the positive and negative effects that both situations could bring forth for the children. I know I have vowed to work through whatever issues arise in a marriage, but what would you consider too much? If your spouse committedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Witnessing loss of love between parents, having parents break their marriage commitment, adjusting to going back and forth between two different households, and the daily absence of one parent while living with the other, all create a challenging new family circumstance in which to live. In the personal history of the boy or girl, parental divorce is a watershed event. Life that follows is significantly changed from how life was before (Pinkhardt 2011). Although this is true, these feelings that accumulate when seeing your parents go through a divorce will change, the changes children endure can balance if parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t let the divorce consume them. The marriage is over, but the well-being of your children must continue and be balanced amongst both parents. Children are more likely to become understanding and accepting of a divorce as they grow and mature. It is known that 82% of those aged 14 to 22 who endure family breakups would prefer their parents to part if they are unhappy. Children want to feel involved and empowered with relevant information about their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorce and what it means for them. They also want to see their parents behaving responsibly, such as to not argue in front of them (Bowcott 2015). When the parents start to behave like the children during a divorce is what causes the most pain and makes the divorce more difficult and hurts the children. Children are natural born learners andShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Effect of Divorce on Children Essay941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespsychological and social aspects of our children, which may appear instantly or not come to the surface for years. This is why I think that divorce should only be a last resort and not rushed into even by couples with the most troubled marriages. The only acceptable reason for someone rushing into divorce is if they or their children are in danger. I believe that marriage is a commitment not to be taken lightly and disregarded at the first bump in the road especially when there are children involvedRead MoreThe Rocky Horror Picture Show1989 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Rocky Horror Picture Show is not so much a movie as more of a long-running social phenomenonÃ¢â¬ (Ebert). The interpretation of t he film, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, which was produced in 1975, opens the curtains to the cross on top of a church after being introduced to the characters by the huge, bright red lips. Promptly after the introduction the camera moves in a sensational gesture towards a just married couple that is walking to the front of the church with their wedding guests, carryingRead MoreThe Bucket List Is A Movie About Two Individuals Pursuing814 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFreeman plays Carter Chambers. Both of these men have been diagnosed with a strong case of cancer. After treatment and surgery they are both given bad news about their outcome. During their stay at the hospital these two men share a room. They form a close relationship and enjoy each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company, spite a rocky beginning. After receiving the bad news about their diagnosis, Carter and Edward decide to fulfill CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s bucket list while also adding some items along the way. Edward and Carter spendRead MoreKathryn Kuhlman As A Holy Spirit1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKathryn Kuhlman was born in Missouri on May 9, 1907 to a Methodist mother and a Baptist father. When Kathryn was at the age of fourteen, she went to a Methodist church with her mother and encountered the Holy Spirit for the first time. Kathryn recounts her testimony in a video and she said, Ã¢â¬Å"We were sitting there, it was time for the last song and I was holding the old fashion Methodist hymnal, whether anyone has ever been converted in that church before or since IÃ¢â¬â¢ll never know, but when the lastRead More Gatlinburg, Tennessee Essay992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshows. It is located on the main strip of Gatlinburg and has two new shows each year. I would highly suggest Sweet Fanny Adams Theater because it is a very comedic show that resembles Monty Python. Gatlinburg also has a CraftsmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fair twice a year; it has 200 booths and operates from 10am until 7pm (http://www.craftmenfair.com). I felt that this was borin g because hand-made crafts are not of interest to me so I would not go again. Restaurants in the area are not a scarce thing; they serve a varietyRead MoreAnalysis Of Oleg Cassini s King Of Bridal 1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCassini was one of the most influential designers with one of the longest careers in American history. He was born in Paris on April 11, 1913 to the Count and Countess Cassini, his grandfather being the Peking Imperial Russian Ambassador. He grew up with his younger brother, Igor Cassini, who turned out to be very similar in many ways. As a child he spent most of his life traveling from Russia, Denmark, and Copenhagen due to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s occupation. When he became a young adult his dream was to becomeRead MoreReview Of Bill Jones Smith 959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMichigan. Bill Jones-Smith was a successful lawyer and the primary breadwinner of the home who ruled the family with an iron fist. Additionally, he was also stern in relation to his relationship with SkylarÃ¢â¬â¢s older son Cole. He repeatedly voiced his concern about Bla keÃ¢â¬â¢s marijuana use and his girlfriend. Furthermore, he projected a sense of insecurity in relation to marriage because he feared that Skylar would divorce him as she had done with her previous husband. Skylar was a stay at home mom and a yogaRead MoreThe Importance Of Education712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages I am a strong person who never gives up. I think everyone should know that education is one of the most important assets you can achieve in a lifetime. I think we all get busy looking for a quicker way to make it and take education for granted. At a young age I dropped out of school, got engaged, got married,got divorced all while spiraling down a dark path of addiction. I took a look at my life and being a single mother of three beautiful strong loving boys it was time to grow up and go back toRead MoreIn the Play Much Ado About Nothing, How Does Shakespeare Present the Relationships Between Men and Women?1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmadly in love with each other. Also in this play, out of all the men Benedick is the most aware of becoming a cuckold because like any other man he scared that he might ruin his ego and lose his masculine pride. A cuckold is when a man believes that marriage is a trap where husbands are controlled and deceived. Claudio, Don Pedro and Benedick all share this suspicion at the beginning. The main plot in Much Ado About Nothing is the story line of Hero and Claudio. Claudio is the heart throb in thisRead MoreAnalysis Of Carline Hawthorne s The Great Gatsby 1664 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages It was a brutally cold night in the Alps .The cold felt as if it was seeping through the walls and floors and was pressing every one closer to the fire. The family had not been on the best of terms in the recent months and needed time together. Carline Hawthorne, the mother, was the wealthiest member of the family. Her business start up was a massive success and she was one of the wealthiest women in Great Britain. In the recent months, Carline had caught her husband Neville , cheating on multiple
Amber Lee Smithnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Weight Lifting Mrs. Registarnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; February 12, 2001 Anabolic Steriods nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Anabolic Steroids are synthetic compounds formulated to be like the male sex hormone testosterone. Many athletes use anabolic steroids male and female alike, such as body builders, weightlifters, baseball players, football players, swimmers, and runners. They do so because they mistakenly believe that they will gain strength and size. In a male, testosterone is released by the leydig cells in the testes.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even though there not supposed to some of the masculinizing effects of testosterone still show on users of anabolic steroid. People who use them sometimes develop acne, depend voice, abnormal hair growth. Some of these side effects can not be reversed. The most severe effect of anabolic steroids is on the liver they call it peliosis hepatis or blood filled cysts in the liver. If the cysts rupture they can cause liver failure which can kill a person. After stopping the use of steroids though these cysts may become smaller and disa ppear. Steroids can also cause cancerous tumors in the liver that can also kill and disappear if the drugs are not used anymore. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Steroids are also increasing the risk of getting gallstones. Use of steroids also effects your cardiovascular system. There are two kinds of cholesterol in your body high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL is good for the body but LDL is very hazardous to your health. Using steroids lowers the number of HDL in the body in most of the users. The lowering of the amount of HDL in the body puts the person at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure and blood-clotting problems. Some of the physicians also think that steroids also cause abnormal fat deposits in the body and change the way the body processes carbohydrates. Men who use steroids also can develop seriousShow MoreRelatedThe Abuse of Anabolic Steriods648 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAccording to Yavari (2009), conventionally, anabolic steroids were used to boost athletic performance and appearance by increasing muscle growth while decreasing fat. These ste roids essentially raise androgenic testosterone levels within the body therefore, promoting faster muscle growth. However, today these performance enhancing drugs are no longer a preserve for bodybuilders and professional athletes. Instead they are widely by people across all age groups. Students from middle-school to high-schoolRead MorePsychological Effects of Using Anabolic Steroids Essay1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Anabolic Steriods. What are they? Where do they come from? Why are they used? From amateurs to pros, from body builders to football players and every sport in between, Steriods, or quot;roidsquot; as they are referred to, have been in the circle of athletes since the 1950s. Is it vanity that drives athletes to use steriods? Do they understand the end results from the abuse of quot;roidsquot;? What psychological effects do steriods have on users?In order to understand the psychological effectsRead MoreShould Performance Enhancing Drugs Be Legal in Sports? 551 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesSteroids helps to increse the bodys ability to utlize protein, it allows athlete to train harder and anabolic steroids are anti-inflammatories and have a effect on repairing injuries. Its not wrong to cheat, if you are cheating for a good reason. Many athelete take steroids in order to do better in the field. In the article What you really need to know about anabolic steriods states that, Anabolic steroids allows athelete to train harder. Many people get tired after training for few hours but takingRead MoreSelf Esteem And Body Image Problems1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPerformance-Enhancing Drugs 5.1 What are Anabolic steroids? Some athletes take a form of steroids Ã¢â¬â known as anabolic-androgen steroids or just anabolic steroids Ã¢â¬â to increase their muscle mass and strength. The main anabolic steroid hormone produced by your body is testosterone. Testosterone has two main effects on your body: Anabolic effects promote muscle building. Androgenic effects are responsible for male traits, such as facial hair and a deeper voice. TEENAGE STERIOD USE ON THE RISE Read More The Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Essay1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontroversy. In order to understand why we are confronted with the problem of performance-enhancing drug use in athletics today, we must look at the history of the development of anabolic steroids: a group of powerful synthetic chemical compounds that resemble the natural male sex hormones (Schwarzenneger 722). Anabolic steroids were first developed in the 1930s as a therapeutic drug to treat growth hormone replacement in deficient children, menopausal symptoms, impotence, and the retardationRead MoreAnabolic Steroids Should Be Banned Essay1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn anabolic steroid is a synthetic steroid hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle (NIDA 2004). Anabolic Steroids are taken by many athletes, whether male or female and can harm the body. There are many anabolic, androgenic effects, and risks. When you continue to negatively use this kind of drug to succeed life threatening consequences come into effect. ..(needs more context ) Ã¢â¬Æ' Introduction In many states and surrounding countries athletes are using what are labeledRead MoreAthletes and Steroid Use Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshistory American culture has become more and more dominated by sports. Out of all of these sports baseball is considered to be Americas pastime. Over the last couple years Americas pastime has come under scrutiny about some of its players using anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, Major League Baseball commissioner Bud Selig said, Ã ¡Ã §... hopefully we can figure out ways to solve this problem. It needs to be solved. There is no one IÃ ¡Ã ¦veRead MoreEssay on Anabolic Steroids1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Anabolic Steroids nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Anabolic steroids are synthetic coumpounds formulated to be like the male sex hormone testosterone. Many athletes use anabolic steroids male and female alike, such as body builders , weightlifters, baseball players, football players, swimmers, and runners. They do so because they mistakenly believe that they will gain strength and size. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In a male testosterone is released by the leydig cells in the testes. The testosteroneRead MorePersonal Narrative: My Friends Steriod Use Essays1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPersonal Narrative: My Friends Steriod Use The media has done an excellent job of creating the ideal body type, with a bombardment of images of what we should look like. However the odds of the average person being able to fit this model are very slim indeed. Since 1997 I have been a member of a health facility where I have worked and worked trying to mold myself into that ideal type. It seems that the closer I get the farther away I am from my goal One day one of my close friends and workRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned in Professional Sports2737 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesTour de France titles, and left Armstrong with nothing. Many people have stopped giving their support to Armstrong because, of his use of performance enhancing drugs. Steroids can only be prescribed if the doctor is face-to-face with the patient (Ã¢â¬Å"AnabolicÃ¢â¬ par. 4). This is because, it will help to eliminate the athletes who call across the United States asking doctors to mail them the steroids. Many major league baseball players would call across the United States and ask for steroids and then,
Mr. Stonefield, I am very happy to hear that you are considering a Performance Management Plan for your business expansion in Austin, Texas. As you may know there are sound organizational payoffs for implementing a strong performance management system. Study indicates that companies with a strong management plan is likely to outperform competitors by 51% on financial measure and by 41% on nonfinancial metrics. The performance management plan for the limousine operation with 25 employees, with a net $-50k revenue, with a growth of rate 5% for the first two years and expected rate of turnover of 10% should be straight forward. Here below I am presenting to you our recommendations for a very comprehensive performance management plan. (Cascio, 2013, P. 332) The first step a business must consider is alignment of performance management to the business strategy. Once you have the vision for the Limo operation in Austin, identify the drivers or Key Performance Indicators to achieve the vision. The KPIs then can cascaded down to the functional areas then to individual level. The next step in the process should be of defining goals. The process of goal setting should be a collaborative process between a manger and the employee. Once the company wide strategy is established the strategy and the goals should be shared with each employee. This is a critical step in the process. One thing to keep in mind in goal development is that the goals should be specific, measurable, achievable and timely. Specific: Well-defined to inform employees exactly what is expected, when, and how much. Measurable: Provide milestones to track progress and motivate employees toward achievement. Achievable: Success needs to be attainable with effort by an average employee, with a bit of a stretch. Relevant: The goals should focus on the greatest impact to the overall corporate strategy. Timely: A goal should be grounded within a time frame to create a sense of urgency for completion. I would like to spend some time now on how it can be done. The need to manage performance at every level is very critical. If done right performance management can act as a compass. The PM can indicate personÃ¢â¬â¢s actual direction as well as personÃ¢â¬â¢s desired direction. With the help of PM a manger can know where the person is now and to help focus attention and effort on the desired direction. Performance management requires willingness and a commitment to focus on improving performance at every level every day. In general, performance management requires that a company defines performance, facilitates performance and encourages performance well. (Cascio, 2013, P. 332) In defining performance, a manger must communicate what is expected of them and stay focused. The studies show that goals direct attention to the performance in question. The goals should not be vague which can lead to misinterpretation of expectations. If goals are measurable, the expectations are clear and there is no room for misinterpretation. The performance then must be assessed at a regular intervals. This approach of setting measurable goals and assessing will leave no doubt in employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s minds as to what is expected of them, how they will be measured and where they stand at any given time. A manager must know and if not, must be educated to know that facilitating performance is a major part of their responsibilities. Managers can facilitate performance by removing road blocks, providing adequate resources and selecting the right people for the job which can help achieve maximum performance. The last area of performance management responsibility is to encourage positive performance. A manger can encourage performance by rewards that employee value in a timely and a fair manner. The manager must take the time to identify what do the employees value. If employees are rewarded with rewards which no one cares about, it can create a motivational issues and may impact the effort negatively. (Cascio, 2013, P. 332 335) Starting a new company requires the development of a plan to help the company succeed. The core of any business is its employees. Employees should have full awareness of their job descriptions and of all the duties entailed. Ã¢â¬Å"Job analysis identifies what is to be done. Ã¢â¬Å" (Cascio, 2013, p. 338). When job descriptions are clearly outlined, employees will not have any questions as to what their responsibilities are. The human resource department will have to make sure to get the job analysis in place and organize any training that will need to be implemented. There are many types of methods to analyze job performance, behavior oriented and results oriented. My recommendation for the limousine operation is to utilize methods from both categories. The critical incidents method interview method are behavior-oriented methods which focus directly on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. The management by objectives method is a results-oriented system which focuses on the contribution of the employee to the success of the company. Stonfield Limo is a service based company. The success of the company relies on the quality of service provided by its employees. The critical incident method focuses directly on job behaviors and what behavior is considered effective or ineffective. Management would be required to write brief summaries of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance based on their observations. Although time consuming, this would be a good method to log the successes of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with clients or the complete opposite which would then allow both management and employee to work on a plan to improve this ineffective behavior during the interview method. The interview method is a more direct interaction between management and employee. It gives both parties a chance to voice their opinions of the job and to work on improvement. Management by Objective is a results-oriented system which focuses on the results of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job performance. For example, Stonefield Limo is a service based company whose business will grow ultimately based on the quality of service. If the same client calls and requests the same driver, then this would be a positive result that can be shared with the employee during the interview method. If service is not good and a complaint is lodged, then this would be a negative result that management would share with the employee during the interview method and then can create a plan. Performance standards translate job requirements into levels of acceptable or unacceptable employee behavior. It specifies how well work is to be done (Cascio, 2013, p. 334). Based on these standards, the methods referenced above measure the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills. Based on the outcome from the methods, an assessment is made by management addressing any improvements that can be made for the betterment of the employee, hence the company. During this process, a skills gap may be one of the outcomes. A skills gap is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a significant gap between an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s skill needs and the current capabilities of its workforce. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the point at which the organization can no longer grow or remain competitive because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the right skills to help drive business results and support the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies and goals. Ã¢â¬ (http://blog. eskill. com/identify-organizational-skills-gap) There are some signs that your organization is facing a skills gap. Perhaps one of the drivers does not have good social skills but is an excellent driver. Perhaps an office person is out sick and a driver needs to fill in between appointments, but the driver does not know how to use a computer. The first thing youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to do is to test the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills when it comes to how well they perform their jobs. Skills testing can provide a good benchmark, so that you can see where your employees are before you get started. Then, you can test them again after training and development has been completed. This will also allow you to see which employees are able to learn more quickly. Secondly, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to invest in training and development. If you want to provide the best limousine service, a company should provide continuous training to support the initiatives. Invest in training classes suitable to the business such as public speaking or behavioral management or computer training. When a company invests in their employees, the employees feel a sense of self-worth and respect and want to perform their best for the company. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve provided training opportunities for your employees, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to create an environment that recognizes the accomplishments and rewards learning that support your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall strategic vision. When employees go above and beyond in their professional development, reward them. Their initiative and drive can pay company tremendous dividends. There are corporations that believe that if they train and hone employee skills, competition will go after your top talent. While there is some truth to it, the approach should be to develop top talent while creating great working conditions. When a company has both, it becomes difficult for competition to just acquire talent by just throwing money at employees. In the event if you think your company is suffering from some form of skills gap, follow these simple steps to help overcome it: use skills testing, train your employees, benchmark everything, provide continuous training opportunities, and, once all of that is accomplished, make sure to provide an environment that keeps top talent. To foster improved job performance as a result of performance feedback, companies should consider the following: activities that supervisors and managers must do before, during and after the interview. Before the interview supervisors should consider communicating the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance with them in more real time and as frequently as possible. If the supervisor does not have experience or not comfortable with performance interview, he or she should acquire training from human resource department. Also when interviewing the employee, use problem solving approach to addressing gaps as opposed to tell and sell approach. Furthermore, ask employees to come prepared to the interview with notes and records that they might have. During the interview, ensure that the employees know that a two way communication is encouraged. The supervisor should remember that the objective in this process is to judge the performance and not the employee. When providing feedback be specific and listen carefully to the comments from the employee. When setting goals for the future improvements ensure that the goals are mutually agreeable, timely and consider stretch goals for maximum performance. After the interview, the process starts all over again. Monitor performance and communicate performance. Periodically assess progress against the goals. Do not forget about the organizational rewards and ensure that they are contingent on performance. (Cascio, 2013, p. 359 362) An effective performance management plan is the key to developing an engaged workforce and it is usually the corner stone of a successful business. Without performance management plan organization could lose time, money, knowledge and at the end the competitive edge in the market place. A business can be successful for a short period of time in the market but will not survive without having a workforce that is engaged and aligned to companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
This report will analyze the marketing environment of Coca-Cola brand looking into both the external and internal strategy of the brand both in the global and the Kenyan market. A situational and evaluative analysis will be conducted and different marketing challenges that Coca-Cola faces will be analyzed. 1. 1 Background of the Study Recognized in 1886, The Coca-Cola Company operated in more than 200 countries, and built markets of approximately 500 different brands and more than 3,000 beverage products around the world. These products include sparkling (carbonated soft drinks) and still beverages, such as waters, juices and juice drinks, packet and bottled teas, coffees, sports and energy drinks. In Africa alone, Coca-Cola is identified to operate in all the territories around the continent. It is known as a global business that functions on a local scale in every community where Coca-Cola is identified to do business. In each of the operated country, the Coca-Cola company employs local people, source local ingredients and produce and sell products locally, thereby directly and indirectly creating a high number of employment opportunities, investments and economic opportunities (Global Village Encyclopedia; Coca-Cola, Kenya). Coca-Cola SabcoÃ¢â¬â¢s Kenyan plant in Embakasi, Nairobi, employs approximately 1,000 people. It is one of the biggest bottling plants in the group. This state-of- the-art facility was officially opened by the former Kenyan president Mwai Kibaki in 2005 (Coca-Cola Sabco; Latest News 2013 Ã¢â¬â Kenya). The establishment of the Embakasi plant was made possible by the tremendous success of its predecessors, Nairobi Bottlers Ltd (NBL) and Flamingo Bottlers Ltd in Nakuru, which together contributed to almost 50% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total volume. The two joined forces with East Kenya Bottlers Limited (EKBL) in 2002 and, in 2003, entered an exciting joint venture that is the Beverage Services Kenya Ltd (BSK) to boost their business further (Kenya News, 2013). Coca-Cola SabcoÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements in Kenya include the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 1995, NBL received the Ã¢â¬ËHighest Quality AwardÃ¢â¬â¢ and was named KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËBottler of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 2003, EKBL was identified as the Ã¢â¬ËBottler of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 2007, NBL won two awards in the prestigious Company of the Year Awards for Kenyan companies and organizations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 2008, NBL won the first runner-up award in the prestigious Ã¢â¬ËCompany of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢ Award in Kenya. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 2009, NBL won the Marketing award in the prestigious Company of the Years Award in Kenya. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kenyans enjoy a wide range of beverages, including Coca-Cola, Coke Light, Sprite, Stoney, Dasani and those from the Krest, Schweppes and Sparletta groups. 1. 2 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study conducted is to identify the marketing strategies of the Coca-Cola Company and the marketing challenges it faces in the Kenyan market. To conduct a situational and evaluative analysis and identify its market segmentations and positioning strategies and provide recommendation on the challenges faced. The study also identifies its open opportunites and threats analyzing the external environment on the Kenyan market also putting into considerations its internal analysis of the company on its strengths and weaknesses (SWOT). 1. 3 Scope of the Study The study covers different marketing concepts and strategies in analyzing the situational analysis of the Coca-Cola Company in Kenya. Understanding the mission statement of the Coca-Cola company, a SWOT analysis is conducted to understand is its internal and external environment in terms of both negativity and positivity of its existence in the market. A market trend is also analyzed in terms of its technological and socio-cultural aspects of the customers. A competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis is conducted to identify the marketing challenges that Coca-Cola faces and later identifying its core competences that assists Coca-Cola raise up-heighted from its competitors. Market analysis for the Coca-Cola Company would also include the study on the AnsoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Matrix. Product analysis is then conducted with the help of the BCG matrix to further determine the market position of the Coca-Cola Company in Kenya. 2. 0 MISSION STATEMENT OF THE COCA-COLA COMPANY One of The Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest strength lies in the ability to conduct business on a global scale while maintaining a local approach. In order for the company to achieve its objectives and maximizing its stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s value, the company is known to be creating value by implementing comprehensive business strategies guided by its key actions and decisions (Awais, 2011). These include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To refresh the world, the customers around them by refreshing beverages Ã¢â¬ ¢ To inspire moments of optimism and happiness by non-alcoholic beverages Ã¢â¬ ¢ To create value and make a difference in the beverage industry. 3. 0 SITUATION ANALYSIS 3. 1 Market Trends With the growing use of the internet and other electronic technologies, global communications is rapidly increasing. This is allowing firms to collaborate within the country and international market. It has driven competition greatly as companies strive to be first-movers. Specifically, the global soft drink marketÃ¢â¬â¢s compound annual growth rate is expected to expand to 3. 6% from 2004 Ã¢â¬â 2009 (Datamonitor, 2005). Taking note of the growing trends societal concerns, attitudes, and lifestyles are important to consumers. For instance, in Kenya now known as one of the developed countries in East Africa, people are becoming more concerned with a healthy lifestyle. ConsumerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of health issues such as obesity and inactive lifestyles represent a serious risk to the carbonated drinks sector. The trend is causing the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment to change, as firms are differentiating their products in order to increase sales in a stagnant market. The low growth rates are of concern for soft drink companies, and several are creating new strategies to battle on with the new rates. Buyers want innovation with the products they buy (Datamonitor, 2005). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s globalizing society, being plain is not good enough to survive in a market. In that manner, Coca-Cola company product line was expanded with varieties of different products suitable to the different target markets. Coca-Cola products would include, Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Diet cherry Coke, cherry Coke, Coca-Cola with Lime, Coca-Cola with lemons and the product that the Coca-Cola Company introduced in its Juice sector, Minute-maid, Dasanimineral water, and many more (Leithwood, 2000). 3. 1. 1 PESTEL analysis for Coca-Cola The Coca Cola Company has its own weaknesses and strengths that can both affect the future performance of their respective business. Analyzing the future constraints is an advantage for the companies since they can identify the possible factors that tend to leave an impact on their business. PESTLE analysis is a popular method that focuses in the external factors of the business and the environment where it operates. PESTLE stands for Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, and Environmental. All of them examine the changes in the marketplace (Kotler, 2003). Political Analysis Political analysis examines the current and potential influences from political pressures. Since Coca-Cola falls in the category under the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and the government plays a role within the operation of manufacturing these products. In terms of regulations, the government has the power to set potential fines for the companies that did not meet their standard law requirement (Quinsy 2011). Other than that, the changes in the nature of business as non-alcoholic beverages can gain competitive product and pricing pressures and the ability to improve or maintain the share in sales in global market as a result of action by competitors. Coca Cola however continuously monitors the policies and regulations set by the government. Nevertheless, it had faced a political issue when coke was noted to contain more than allowed content of sugar hence inviting other sociological concerns (Khansam 2011). Economic Analysis Economic analysis examines the local, national and world economy impact which also includes the issue of recession and inflation rates. The Coca-Cola Company has high sales in countries outside the U. S. According to the Standard and Poors Industry surveys, For major soft drink companies, there has been economic improvement in many major international markets, such as Japan, Brazil, and Africa. These markets will continue to play a major role in the success and stable growth for a majority of the non-alcoholic beverage industry. There is a low growth in the market for carbonated drinks, especially in Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s main market, North America. The market growth recorded at only 1% in 2004 for North America (Hanna, 2012). Sociological Analysis This analyzes the ways in which changes in society affect the organization such as changing in lifestyles and attitudes of the market. Consumers from the ages of 37 to 55 are also increasingly concerned with nutrition. There is a large population of the age range known as the baby boomers. Since many are reaching an older age in life they are becoming more concerned with increasing their longevity. This will continue to affect the non-alcoholic beverage industry by increasing the demand overall and in the healthier beverages. The demand for carbonated drinks decreases and this pulled down the revenues of Coca Cola (Hanna, 2012). Technological Analysis Technology is the main focus of the analysis where the introduction and the emerging technological techniques are valued. This creates opportunities for new products and product improvements in terms of marketing and production. As the technology advances, new products are introduced into the market. The advancement in technology has led to the creation of cherry coke in 1985 but consumers still prefers the traditional taste of the original coke (Khansam 2011). Legal Analysis Legal aspect focuses on the effect of the national and world legislation. The Coca Cola Company receives all the rights applicable in the nature of their business and every inventions and product developments are always going into the patented process. (Khansam 2011). Environmental Analysis Environmental analysis examines the local, national and world environmental issues. According to the data of the Coca Cola Company, all of the facilities are strictly monitored according to the environmental laws imposed by the government (Khansam 2011). 3. 2 Competitors Analysis VENTURES AFRICA Ã¢â¬â Global soft drinks giant, Coca-Cola, is set to face major a threat on its supremacy in the Kenyan market, as its rival PepsiCo, begins production at its new 2. 4 billion shilling ($28. 3 million ) plant in Kenya (Kenya News, 2013). PepsiCo exited the Kenyan market in the 1970s but made a re-entry in 2010 importing most of its products. The firm which recently advertised position for middle level employees is however expected to begin production of Pepsi Diet, Pepsi Cola, Seven Up, Everess, Mirinda and Soda Water later in the year. Though Coca-Cola has easily brushed off smaller competitors in the Kenyan market, PepsiCo, which is the the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest food and beverage firm, has enough financial muscle to wrestle Coca- Cola (Business, Retail Manufacturing, Strategies Solutions, 2012). SABMiller, is also planning to enter the soft drinks market through its Kenyan subsidiary Crown Foods Ltd. Coca-Cola is also facing competition from Del Monte Kenya Ltd. which has dominated the ready to drink juice market with its Minute Maid brand, at a time KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s middle class is becoming more health conscious and aware of health risks associated with soda. A report was released by a US consumer watchdog that said Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s Coke brand contains cancer causing chemicals. The Centre for Science in the Public Interest said the Coke sold in Kenya had the second highest level of 4 methylimidizole (4-MI) in nine countries sampled. Though Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s general manager for East Africa Peter Njonjo termed the report as malicious (Kenya News, 2013). In a strategic move, Coca-Cola is also investing 5 billion shillings ($59 million) over the next three years to expand its production capacity and diversify into the juice market. Other than competition, reduced consumer purchasing power caused by inflation, high interest rates and bad weather early in the year, are also a concern for Coca-Cola (Kenya News, 2013). 3. 2. 1 Porters Competitive Forces Ã¢â¬â Coca-Cola Company The soft drink industry is very competitive. The companies have to think about the pressures that are from the rival sellers within the industry, new entrants to the industry, substitute products, suppliers and buyers bargaining power. Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest competitors in this soft drink industry come from Pepsi Co. and the Cadbury Schweppes. As they are also globally established, they create a greater amount of competition. Though Coca-Cola owns four of the top five soft drink brands (Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite), it had lower sales in 2005 than did Pepsi Co. (Murray 2006). However, Coca-Cola has higher sales in the global market than Pepsi Co. In 2004, Pepsi Co. dominated North America with sales of $22 billion, whereas Coca-Cola only had about $6. 6 billion, with more of their sales coming from the overseas. PepsiCo. is the main competitor for Coca-Cola and these two brands have been in a power struggle for years (Murray 2006). Brand name loyalty is another competitive pressure. Diet Pepsi ranked 17th and Diet Coke ranked 36th as having the most loyal customers to their brands. The new competition between rival sellers is to create new varieties of soft drinks, such as Cherry Coke and Vanilla Coke, in order to keep increasing sales and enticing new customers. New Entrants: New Entrants are not known to be a strong competitive pressure on Coca-Cola as for the soft drink industry. Coca-Cola apparently dominates the industry with their strong brand name and large distribution channels. Furthermore, the soft drink industry is fully saturated and growth is small. This makes it very difficult for the new and unknown entrants to start competing against the existing firms (Deichart, 2006). Another barrier to entry is high fixed costs for warehouse, trucks and labor, and economies of scale. New entrants cannot compete in price without economies of scale. These high capital requirements and market saturation make it extremely difficult for companies to enter the soft drink industry; therefore new entrants are not a strong competitive force (Ellenbecker, 2007). Substitute Products: Substitute product are those competitors that are not in the soft drink industry. Such substitutes for Coca-Cola products are bottled water, sports drinks, coffee and tea. Bottled water and sports and energy drinks are increasing popular with the trend to be a more health conscious consumer. There are progressively more varieties in the water and sports drinks that appeal to different consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s tastes, but also appear healthier than soft drinks. In addition, coffee and tea are competitive substitutes product because they provide caffeine. For consumers to switch for substitute product, Coca-Cola also has its own bottled water, Diet Coke, Coke Zero counters for such products. It is also very cheap for consumers to switch to these substitutes making the threat of substitute product very strong (Datamonitor, 2005). Suppliers: Suppliers for the soft drink industry do not hold much competitive pressure. CocaCola is bottling equipment manufacturers and secondary packaging suppliers. Although CocaCola does not do any bottling, the company owns about 36% of Coca-Cola Enterprises which is the largest Coke bottler in the world. (Murray 2006) Since Coca-Cola owns the majority of the bottler, that particular supplier does not hold much bargaining power. In terms of equipment manufacturers, the suppliers are generally providing the same products. The number of equipment suppliers in not in short supply, then it becomes fairly easy for a company to switch suppliers. This takes away much of supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s bargaining power. The buyers of the Coca-Cola and other soft drinks are mainly large grocers, discounts stores and restaurants. The soft drink companies distribute the beverages to these stores for resale to the consumer (Ellenbecker, 2007). BuyersÃ¢â¬â¢ bargaining power: The bargaining power of the buyers is very evident and strong. Large grocers and discount stores buy large volumes of the soft drinks, all owing them to buy at lower prices. Restaurants have less bargaining power because they do not order a large volume. However, with the number of people who are drinking less soft drink, the bargaining power of the buyers could start increasing due to decreasing buyer demand. (Datamonitor, 2005) 3. 3 SWOT Analysis of Coca-Cola Company The SWOT analysis of Coca-Cola Ã¢â¬â this is a simple analysis used to identify and evaluate the external and internal analysis of Coca-Cola Company with the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong leading brands with high levels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial market volatility impacting of consumer acceptance Ã¢â¬â this allows the company to extend its product to position of the company (Victian, attract new customers. (Bazil, 2013) Ã¢â¬ ¢ pension assets and in turn the liquidity 2011) Large scale of operations Ã¢â¬â Coca-Cola Ã¢â¬ ¢ Big slow decision making can give products have already sold in over 200 competitive advantage to the countries. In addition, it records its competitors, specifically to Pepsi Co. revenues in millions of dollars making by being the first to introduce a certain it the largest manufacturer in the product for example (Bazil, 2013). industry (Bazil, 2013) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leading market position Ã¢â¬â the brand is about 5% ahead of its main competitor, i. e. Pepsi Co. in the market (Vitian, 2011) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong cash flows from operations Ã¢â¬â the brand is capable of creating over $50 million a day (Bazil 2013) OPPORTUNITIES Ã¢â¬ ¢ Global growth in the non-alcoholic read THREATS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic climate Ã¢â¬â countries from all to-drink beverage industry Ã¢â¬â this trend over the world have felt the impacts of is set to generate retail sale in the the current recession. This may be industry to more than $1 trillion by problem for Coke, which derives 2020 (Bobby 2003). approximately 75% of its sales from outside Africa (Vitian, 2011) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Growing global bottle water market with intense competition (Bobby 2003). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Health and wellness had created concern for carbonated products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Booming global functional drinks especially in the developed countries market; e. g. energy drinks (Vitian, like Kenya and other westernized ares 2011) Ã¢â¬ ¢ like the USA and Europe (Bobby 2003). Target the ageing customers and the young and more environmental concerned people (Vitian, 2011) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Over dependencies on bottling partners (Vitian, 2011) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intense competition Ã¢â¬â either in local or global markets, or both (Bobby 2003). 4. 0 EVALUATIVE ANALYSIS KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s brand terrain is littered with many brands. Some are as old as Kenya while others are relatively new having made it to the scene in the 21st Century. Amongst these brands, there are those that boast of having a special place in the hearts and minds of Kenyan consumers. CocaCola is one of these brands having been in existence for the last 125 years and still very fresh, funky, cool, warm and an exciting brand that has remained young. Studies have shown that Coca-Cola is among the most-admired and best-known trademarks in the world. In fact, it is documented that Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬ is the second-most widely understood term in the world, after Ã¢â¬Å"okay. Ã¢â¬ 4. 1 Marketing Mix of Coca Ã¢â¬â Cola Coca cola is the brand with the highest brand equity. No doubt it has gone through the ups and downs of business to reach that position. The marketing mix of Coca cola has been changing over time with more and more products being added such that today it has 3300 products. However the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s that is the Product, Price, Place and Promotion, have be analyzed as below. Product The Coca-Cola Company has the widest portfolio in beverage industry comprising of 3300 products. Beverages are divided into diet category, 100% fruit juices, fruit drinks, water, energy drinks, tea and coffee etc. As per NielsonÃ¢â¬â¢s data, Coca cola is the No. 1 brand in sparkling beverages, juice, and retail packaged water in 2010. Coca cola has its market presence around 200 countries. Coca cola brands in Kenya are Fanta, Maaza, Sprite, Thums up, Minute Maid, Nested iced tea etc. Figure 1 below identifies Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s share in beverage categories (Sharma, 2013) Figure 1: Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s share in beverage categories (Spencer, 2011) Product-life cycle: To be able to market its product properly, a business must be aware of the product life cycle of its product. The standard product life cycle tends to have five phases: Development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Coca-Cola is currently in the maturity stage, which is evidenced primarily by the fact that they have a large, loyal group of stable customers. Furthermore, cost management, product differentiation and marketing have become more important as growth slows and market share becomes the key determinant of profitability. In foreign markets the product life cycle is in more of a growth trend Cokes advantage in this area is mainly due to its establishment strong branding and it is now able to use this area of stable profitability to subsidize the domestic Cola Wars. Figure 2 below indicates a diagram of product life cycle curve for better understanding (Shriam, 2009). Figure 2: Product Life Cycle Curve (Shriam, 2009) Price Due to the availability of wide range products the pricing is done according to the market and geographic segment. Each sub-brand of coca cola has different pricing strategy. Their pricing strategy is based on the competitors pricing, Pepsi is the direct competitor to coke. Beverage market is said to be a oligopoly market (few sellers and large buyers), hence they form into cartel contract to ensure a mutual balance in pricing between the sellers (Sandeep, 2003). Place Coca cola is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most favorite brand and is available all over the world. The distribution system of coca cola follows the FMCG distribution pattern. The effective distribution network of coke has almost eroded the small and middle level players in the market. In Kenya they have captured even the rural market by extensive distribution and have eroded the market share of Nairobi, Nakuru, Mombasa, etc (Shriam, 2009). Promotion Coca cola adopts various advertising and promotional strategies to create an increased demand in the market by associating with life style and behaviour and mainly targeting value based advertising. A coke advertisement is most likely to be seen individualized for a particular festival or in with a general positive message. Coca cola uses corporate social responsibility (CSR) as its marketing tool to gain emotional benefits in consumers mind. The current promotions through CSR include Ã¢â¬Å"Support my schoolÃ¢â¬ campaign with NDTV India. It has many brand ambassadors like Shahrukh khan, Hrithik Roshan, South Indian Actor Vijay and Trisha , Hollywood actor Tom Cruise, Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, Julia Roberts, Indian cricketer Ghambir, etc. It allows price discounts and allowances to distributors and retailers in order to push more products into the market. It employs both push strategy through promotions and pull strategy through advertisements and campaigns (Sandeep, 2003). 4. 1. 1 Distribution Strategy for Coca Cola The Coca-Cola company operates a franchised distribution system dating from 1889 where The Coca-Cola Company only produced syrup concentrate which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold an exclusive territory. The Coca-Cola Company owns its anchor bottler in North America, Coca-Cola Refreshments. (Upadhyay, 2007) The company is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. However, in the all countries that Coca-Cola has attained its brand usually makes two types of selling (George, 2009): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Direct selling: In direct selling they supply their products in shops by using their own transports. They have a number of vehicles to supply their bottles. In this type of selling company have more profit margin. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indirect selling: They have their whole sellers and agencies to cover all area. Because it is very difficult for them to cover all area in a country by their own so they have so many whole sellers and agencies to assure their customers for availability of coca cola products. 4. 1. 2 AnsoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Matrix for Coca-Cola Company Ansoffs matrix is a useful tool for examining a companys product range. This compares the alternatives of developing new products and new markets (Awais, 2003). There are four main options: 1. Market penetration: selling more of the same types of product to the same types of people. 2. Product development: building on existing relationships with consumers and on a creative ability to develop new products suited to consumer wants. 3. Market development: developing an existing product to cater for emerging markets. 4. Diversification: developing new products for new markets. Coca-Cola Great Britain | Using market research to develop a product range (Awais, 2003) Information about some of the products produced by Coca Cola is given below. 1. Market Penetration: Diet Coke Since being introduced in 1982 as a result of a growing trend towards dieting and healthier living, Diet Coke has been a highly successful product for the Coca Cola company, selling millions of units per year. Throughout this time, Coca Cola has constantly adapted aspects of the marketing mix for Diet Coke in order to continually match customer trends and fashions (Haiban, 2012). 2. Market Development: Coca-Cola Share size Desk research showed Coca Cola that a growing number of households contained 1-2 people, which led them to believe that a smaller version of the 2 litre family sized bottle would sell well to these groups. In launching this product (simply sell existing brands such as Coca Cola, Diet Coke etc) (Michaele, 2004) 3. Product Development: Fanta Icy Lemon; Coca-Cola Cherry Having had a successful launch in Africa, Coca Cola decided to launch itÃ¢â¬â¢s new Cherry flavored version in the East Africa. Prior to doing so, Coca Cola carried out taste tests and developed the graphical Ã¢â¬ËlookÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Diet Coke brand. When they did this, they took great care to incorporate aspects of the Coca Cola brand, but still differentiating it so consumers would see it as an alternative to Coke (Michaele, 2004). The development of a new flavour sparkling drink by Coca Cola was as a direct result of listening to consumers who called the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Care line telephone service. The business conducted taste tests prior to the 2001 launch. This build an image in the consumers mind on a new product that coca-cola has launched (Michaele, 2004). 4. Diversification: Power-rade; Winnie the Pooh Roo Juice by Coca Cola Coca-Cola was mainly known of its carbonated drinks. When its target market was more of seen to becoming health conscious and careful, Coca-Cola diversified its market to produce juice and energy drinks which had better health benefits to serve its market with in order to stay into firm competitions with its other base competitors such as Del Monte manufacturing Minute Maid juice most preferable by the health conscious market (Haiban, 2012). 4. 1. 3 BCG Matrix for Coca-Cola Company Organizations with a broader range of products and services or in general superior organizations usually find it difficult to analyze in what percentage their resources should be allocated with different business units. Any organization is known to hit a success level if it concentrates on its strengths and remain keen on not to touch its weaknesses, as well as to further explore its conspicuous opportunities that will invite in a maximum benefit for the organization (Jagwani, 2009) Boston Consulting Group matrix (BCG Matrix) provides a basic understanding on the interrelation between the market share value of a certain commodity and its market growth. It is known to be a two-dimensional analysis on the management of Small business unit (SBU) (David A. Aaker; Strategic Market Management; Forth Edition). Nevertheless it is also known to be a proportional analysis of business potentials and the examination of it market environment. The Small Business Units in the BCG matrix are categorized into four groups, that is, The Stars, The Cash Cows, The Question mark and The Dogs. Figure 3: BCG Matrix for Coca-Cola Company For the case of Coca-Cola Company, it is one of the world largest and famous brands in the beverages industry and it is well renowned worldwide for the variety of beverage products; over 3500 products worldwide that it offers and its thick investments on research and development providing constant product innovation. Since Coca-Cola offer a variety of product, it may be difficult to analyze its market position according to the BCG matrix. Nevertheless, below is the BCG matrix analysis for the Coca-Cola Company (Gyamfi, 2012). Stars These are the business units that lead their rivals in the market place having larger market share value and with higher opportunities in the market for growth. The businesses in this category usually require high investments to constantly survive in the market (Stern, 2012). For the case of Coca-Cola, Thumbs-Up, Maaza and the Mineral water bottle, Kinsley and Dasani can be grouped under this category. This is due to the fact that all of these product yet require continuous investments on improvements on preferable tastes and that there are also bigger opportunities accessible in the market for growth (Jagwani, 2009). There are however other rivals such as those products offered b Pepsi Co, providing similar competition. However Coca-Cola is known to be ahead of Pepsi Co. in terms of share value on these star products. All business organizations require Stars that shall with time become cash cows that prove critical for future improvement of cash flows. Cash Cows These are products with which an organization enjoys the leading market share value but does not have any further market growth. The products in these category are matured enough in the market and hence do not require further investment (Stern, 2012). For the case of Coca-Cola, its lead product Coke and Limca can be categorized into this section with approximately 70% (plus) market share value with its closest rival Pepsi Co. (with 20% of relative market share) on its core pepsi product. In this case, the core product of Coca-Cola, the Coke, has apparently won over all its rivals in the market segment (Jagwani, 2009). This therefore indicates that Coke is now a matured product and its stable enough to survive the market, hence it requires no further investments on product innovation. The cash flow that is generated under the sales of Coke, Limca and some of its other star products that are likely to lead to becoming cash cows may therefore be enough to invest on question mark products. Question Marks These are usually the products that have a low market share but have high growth opportunities. If further investments are placed on such products, there are chances for the product to acquire higher market share. Organization managements usually face rick analytic questions on which products to invest on and which shall require further priorities. If products in this category are not taken into appropriate consideration, there are most likely to fall into the Dogs category (Stern, 2012). The Coca-Cola products, Fanta and Sprite are to be categorized in the Question Mark category. The Fanta and Sprite relatively acquire a very minimum market share, but has growth opportunities with investments on its different flavors. However, the decision on the investment of Fanta and Sprite apparently becomes difficult due to its preference level being low in the market. If more product innovation in terms of taste and preference is placed on these Coca-Cola products, than it does have an opportunity to grow (Jagwani, 2